The Science

We will be updating this page shortly with further details (more text with references). If you have any questions relating to this, please feel free to contact us here.

In the interests of scientific debate and balance, we endeavour to engage with the controversy surrounding the placebo effects and we therefore include links to relevant papers/articles below. But it is worth noting that these articles do not refer to the conditioned neuroimmune response, but rather more to anticipated placebo effects. It is generally considered that anticipated effects may have up to a 30% response rate, whilst conditioned neuroimmune effects can have a 70-90% response rate. With this in mind, the reader should be wary of grouping these two different mechanisms and responses together under a single category of ‘the placebo effect’.


Benedetti, Fabrizio. ‘Placebo Effects: Understanding the mechanisms in health and disease’ (2008). Available on Amazon UK and Amazon USA.

Kaptchuk, Ted J and Miller, Franklin G. ‘Placebo Effects in Medicine’ (2015, The New England Journal of Medicine 373;1 p.8-9).

Pecina, Marta et al. ‘Personality Trait Predictors of Placebo Analgesia and Neurobiological Correlates; (2013, Neuropsychophamacology 38 p.639-646)

Petkovic, Grace et al. ‘Effects of placebos without deception compared with no treatment: protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis (2015, BMJ Open 5;e009428 p.1-7).


Benedetti, Fabrizio et al. ‘How Placebos Change the Patient’s Brain’ (2011, Neuropsychopharmacology 36 p.339-354).

Linde, Klaus et al. ‘Placebo effects and clinical practice’ (2011, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 366 p.1905-1912).

Oken, Barry S. ‘Placebo effects: clinical aspects and neurobiology’ (2008, Brain 131 p.2812-2823).

Price, Donald D et al. ‘A Comprehensive Review of the Placebo Effect: Recent Advances and Current Thought’ (2008, Annual Reviews | Psychology 59 p.565-590).

Wager, Tor D. and Atlas, Lauren Y. ‘The neuroscience of placebo effects: connecting context, learning and health (2015, Nature Reviews | Neuroscience 16 p.403-418).


For the purposes of balance and to allow you to make you own decisions, I have included works from the opposing side of the argument. 

Barrowman, Nick. ‘The Myth of the Placebo Effect’ (2016, The New Atlantis; Winter p.46-59)

Foot, Doug and Ridge, Damien. ‘Constructing the placebo effect in the placebo wars: What is the way ahead?’ (2012, Health Sociology Review 21;3 p.355-368).

If you’d like to find a list of sources/further reading on the placebo effects and related areas, please visit our Further Reading page.

If you’d like to find out more about the general ideas underlying Yekize, please visit our About page or you can read the essay where it all began.