At Yekize, we pride ourselves on always taking an ethical approach. All our research shall first obtain ethical approval where required to ensure our standards of morality are not compromised in any way.


There are also ethical issues surrounding neuroimmune conditioning and placebo effects more generally. The primary issue is informed consent (see below).

Informed Consent

It is often assumed that the placebo effect requires deception. However, this is not always the case. Various studies listed below, have demonstrated that a patient can continue to respond to a placebo even when they know that it is a placebo. However, for us, the most convincing work, revolves around the conditioned placebo response. In 1975, Robert Ader discovered that rats could respond to placebos after a period of conditioning. The fact that animals respond in this way, demonstrates that the psycholgical elements, including deception, are not as integral to the placebo response as is generally thought. This study has been replicated many times on humans, demonstrating that there may be a more direct immune response to placebos following a conditioning period, without the psychological intermediary.